Rhinitis treatment focuses on symptom control through avoidance, medication and immunotherapy (allergen specific). Allergens that can trigger rhinitis are: pollen, mold, dust mites, pet dander, cockroach waste, chemicals, perfumes, smoke, rapid changes in temperature and hormonal changes. These allergens trigger the body to release a chemical called histamine, which leads to symptoms of itchy eyes and nose, runny nose, stuffy nose, sneezing and a itchy throat or palate. Irritants such as alcohol, drugs and certain foods can also cause or worsen rhinitis.축농증한의원
The most important symptom to control is sneezing. Antihistamines are very effective medications that stop histamine production and can be taken orally or intranasal. The second generation oral antihistamines (desloratadine [Aerius], fexofenadine [Allergra], loratadine [Claritin]) and cetirizine [Reactine]) are the first-line medications recommended for all patients with allergic rhinitis. These antihistamines are very effective in controlling the sneezing, itching and rhinorrhea of allergic rhinitis. The older first generation sedating antihistamines (diphenhydramine, chlorpheniramine, brompheniramine and hydroxyzine) are also very effective but have undesirable side effects such as drowsiness, impaired cognitive functioning and cardiovascular risk.
A nasal spray containing steroids or a combination of steroid and antihistamine is an effective pharmacological therapy for controlling the congestion and sneezing of allergic rhinitis. Nasal saline irrigation is an additional important management option for patients with refractory symptoms to oral and/or intranasal antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids. If symptoms do not improve despite adequate pharmacological therapy, surgical options such as sinus surgery with turbinoplasty and/or inferior turbinate reduction, or adenoidectomy may be indicated.
Immunotherapy is an exciting new option for the long-term treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergen immunotherapy reduces the symptoms of allergies by teaching the immune system to become less sensitive to specific allergens. The treatment is administered as daily pills placed under the tongue (sublingual immunotherapy) or by injection into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh (immunotherapy by subcutaneous administration). This type of allergy treatment can be a good alternative to traditional injections for those who are not comfortable with shots. Unlike conventional immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy requires only one visit to the clinician’s office to receive the first dose. Once the patient is stabilized, the therapy can be self-administered at home. Immunotherapy is only available for certain types of allergies, and it may take months to see a response. Talk with your doctor to learn more about immunotherapy for your allergic rhinitis.라경찬한의원